• *Common Medical Abbreviations*

    >*Pt= Patient

    >*K/c/o= known case of

    >C/o= complaint of

    >∆ *= diagnosis

    > *Rx= Treatment

    > *Hx= History

    > *Dx= Diagnosis

    > *q= Every

    > *qd= Every day

    > *qod= Every other day

    > *qh= Every Hour

    > *S= without

    > *SS= One & half

    > *C= With

    > *SOS= If needed

    > *AC= Before Meals

    > *PC= After meals

    > *BID= Twice a Day

    > *TID= Thrice a Day

    > *QID= Four times a day

    > *OD= Once a Day

    > *BT= Bed Time

    > *hs= Bed Time

    > *BBF= Before Breakfast

    > *BD= Before Dinner

    > *Tw= Twice a week

    > *SQ= sub cutaneous

    > *IM= Intramuscular

    > *ID= Intradermal

    > *IV= Intravenous

    > *Q4H= (every 4 hours)

    > *QOD= (every other day)

    > *HS= (at bedtime)

    > *PRN= (as needed)

    > *PO or “per os”(by mouth)

    > *Mg= (milligrams)

    > *Mcg/ug= (micrograms)

    > *G or Gm= (grams)

    > *1TSP(Teaspoon) = 5 ml

    > *1 Tablespoonful=15ml

    ~ *DDx=differential Diagnosis

    *Tx=Treatment

    *RTx=Radiotherapy

    *CTx=Chemotherapy

    *R/O=rule out

    *s.p=status post

    *PMH(x)=post medical history

    *Px=Prognosis

    *Ix=Indication

    *CIx=contraindication

    *Bx=biopsy

    *Cx=complication…

    *Knowledge About Blood*

    1. Which is known as ‘River of Life’?

    *Answer: Blood*

    2. Blood circulation was discovered by?

    *Answer: William Harvey*

    3. The total blood volume in an adult?

    *Answer: 5-6 Litres*

    4. The pH value of Human blood?

    *Answer: 7.35-7.45*

    5. The normal blood cholesterol level?

    *Answer: 150-250 mg/100 ml*

    6. The fluid part of blood?

    *Answer: Plasma*

    7. Plasma protein fibrinogen has an active role in?

    *Answer: Clotting of blood*

    8. Plasma protein globulins functions as?

    *Answer: Antibodies*

    9. Plasma proteins maintain the blood pH?

    *Answer: Albumins*

    10. Biconcave discs shaped blood cell?

    *Answer: RBC(Erythrocytes)

    *11. Non nucleated blood cell?*

    *Answer: RBC(Erythrocytes)

    12. Respiratory pigments present in RBC?

    *Answer: Haemoglobin*

    13. Red pigment present in RBC?

    *Answer: Haemoglobin*

    14. RBC produced in the?

    *Answer: Bone marrow*

    15. Iron containing pigment of Haemoglobin?

    *Answer: Haem*

    16. Protein containing pigment of Haemoglobin?

    *Answer: Globin*

    17. Graveyard of RBC?

    *Answer: Spleen*

    18. Blood bank in the body?

    *Answer: Spleen*

    19. Life span of RBC?

    *Answer: 120 Days*

    20. Total count is measured by an instrument known as?

    *Answer: Haemocytometer*

    21. A decrease in RBC count is known as?

    *Answer: Anemia*

    22. An increase in RBC count is known as?

    *Answer: Polycythemia*

    23. A high concentration of bilirubin in the blood causes?

    *Answer: Jaundice*

    24. The disease resistant blood cell?

    *Answer: WBC (leucocytes)*

    25. Which WBC is known as soldiers of the body?

    *Answer: Neutrophils*

    26. Largest WBC?

    *Answer: Monocyes*

    27. Smallest WBC?

    *Answer: Lymphocytes*

    28. Antibodies producing WBC?

    *Answer: Lymphocytes*

    29. Life span of WBC?

    *Answer: 10-15 days*

    30. Blood cell performs an important role in blood clotting?

    *Answer: Thrombocytes (Platelets)*

    31. Vessels is called?

    *Answer: Thrombus*

    32. Anticoagulant present in Blood?

    *Answer: Heparin*

    33. A hereditary bleeding disease?

    *Answer: Haemophilia*

    34. Bleeder’s disease?

    *Answer: Haemophilia*

    35. Christmas disease?

    *Answer: Haemophilia*

    36. A type of Anemia with sickle shaped RBC?

    *Answer: Sickle cell anemia*

    37. Viscosity of Blood?

    *Answer: 4.5 to 5.5*

    38. Instrument used to measure haemoglobin?

    *Answer: Haemoglobinometer*

    39. Who demonstrated blood groups?

    *Answer: Karl Landsteiner*

    40. Who demonstrated Rh factor?

    *Answer: Karl Landsteiner*

    41. Blood group which is called Universal donor?

    *Answer: O*

    42. Blood group which is called Universal recipient?

    *Answer: AB*

    43. Blood group is most common among the Asians?

    *Answer: B*

    *MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY*

    Everybody should know the basic functioning of Human Body and its main parts in order to express and explain their ailment to the Doctor and at the same time one should be able to understand the diagnosis expressed by the Doctor in the medical terminology. For easy recognition of the Compounded Words used in the Medical Terminology for naming the disease, Suffixes are added to Prefixes. For this hereunder giving you a few such prefixes for your ready reference and understanding.

    Prefix – Meaning

    *1. Adeno- Glandular

    *2. An- Not

    *3. Anti- Against

    *4. Aorto- Aorta

    *5. Artho- joint

    *6. Bleph- Eyelid

    *7. Broncho- Bronchi

    *8. Cardio- Heart

    *9. Cephal- Head

    *10. Cerebro- Brain

    *11. Cervico- Cervix

    *12. Cholecysto- Gall Bladder

    *13. Coli- Bowel

    *14. Colpo- Vagina

    *15. Entero- Intestine

    *16. Gastro- Stomach

    *17. Glosso- Tongue

    *18. Haema- Blood

    *19. Hepa- Liver

    *20. Hystero- Uterus

    *21. Laryngo- Larynx

    *22. Leuco- White

    *23. Metro- Uterus

    *24. Myelo- Spinal cord

    *25. Myo- Muscle

    *26. Nephro- Kidney

    *27. Neuro- Nerve

    *28. Odonto- Tooth

    *29. Orchido- Testis

    *30. Osteo- Bone

    *31. Oto- Ear

    *32. Pharyngo- Pharynx

    *33. Pio- Pus

    *34. Pneumo- Lung

    *35. Ren- Kidney

    *36. Rhin- Nose

    *37. Spleno- Spleen

    *38. Thyro- Thyroid Gland

    *39. Urethro- Urethra

    *40. Vesico– Bladder

    *Here are the suffixes used in Medical terminology. Check out!Suffix – Meaning*

    *1. -aemia: Blood

    *2. -algia: Pain

    *3. -derm: skin

    *4. -dynia: pain

    *5. -ectomy: removal

    *6. -Itis: inflammation

    *7. -lithiasis: Presence of Stone

    *8. -malacia: softening

    *9. -oma: tumour

    *10. -opia: eye

    *11. -osis: Condition,excess

    *12. -otomy: incision of

    *13. -phobia: fear

    *14. -plasty: surgery

    *15. -plegia: peralysis

    *16. -ptosis: falling

    *17. -rhoea: excessive discharge

    *18. -rhage: to burst forth

    *19. -rhythmia: rhythm.

    *20. -stasis: stoppage of movement

    *21. -sthenia: weakness

    *22. -stomy: outlet

    *23. -tomy: removal

    *24. -trophy: nourishment

    *25. -uria: urine

    *Compounded Words – Meaning*

    *1. Anaemia- Deficiency of haemoglobin in the blood

    *2. Analgesic- Medicine which alleviates pain

    *3. Arthralgia- Pain in a joint

    *4. Cephalalgia- Headache

    *5. Nephralgia- Pain in the kidney

    *6. Neuralgia- Nerve pain

    *7. Myalgia- Muscle pain

    *8. Otalgia- Ear ache

    *9. Gastralgia- Pain in the stomach

    *10. Pyoderma- Skin infection with pus formation

    *11. Leucoderma- Defective skin pigmentaion

    *12. Hysterodynia- Pain in the uterus

    *13. Hysterectomy- Excision of the uterus

    *14. Nephrectomy- Excision of a kidney

    *15. Adenectomy- Excision of a gland

    *16. Cholecystectomy- Excision of gall bladder

    *17. Thyroidectomy- Excision of thyroid gland

    *18. Arthritis- Inflammation of a joint

    *19. Bronchitis- Inflammation of the bronchi

    *20. Carditis- Inflammation of the heart

    *21. Cervicitis- Inflammation of the cervix

    *22. Colitis- Inflammation of the colon

    *23. Colpitis- Inflammation of the vagina

    *24. Cystitis- Inflammation of the urinary bladder

    *25. Enteritis- Inflammation of the intestines

    *26. Gastritis- Inflammation of the stomach

    *27. Glossitis- Inflammation of the tongue

    *28. Hepatitis- Inflammation of the liver

    *29. Laryngitis- Inflammation of the larynx

    *30. Metritis- Inflammation of the uterus

    *31. Myelitis- Inflammation of the spinal cord

    *32. Nephritis- Inflammation of the kidney

    *33. Pharyngitis- Inflammation of the pharynx

    *34. Blepharitis- Inflammation of the eyelids

    *35. Cholelithiasis- Stone in the gall bladder

    *36. Nephrolithiasis- Stone in the kidney

    *37. Osteomalacia- Softening of bones through deficiency of calcium or D vitamin

    *38. Adenoma-Benign tumour of glandular tissue

    *39. Myoma- Tumour of muscle

    *40. Diplopia- Double vision

    *41. Thrombosis- Formation of a blood clot

    *42. Pyloromyotomy- Incision of pyloric sphincter muscle

    *43. Hedrophobia- Fear of water(Rabies in humans)

    *44. Neuroplasty- Surgical repair of nerves

    *45. Pyloraplasty- Incision of plastic pylorus to widen passage

    *46. Hemiplegia- Paralysis of one side of the body

    *47. Nephroptosis- Downward displacement of the kidney

    *48. Amenorrhoea- Absence of menstrual discharge

    *49. Dysmenorrhoea- Painful menstruation

    *50. Leucorrhoea- Whitish vaginal discharge

    *51. Menorrhoea- Menstrual bleeding

    *52. Haemorrhage- Escape of blood from a vessel

    *53. Arrhythmia- Any deviation of normal rhythm of heart

    *54. Cholestasis- Diminution in the flow of bile

    *55. Haemostatis- Arrest of bleeding

    *56. Neurasthenia- Nervous debility

    *57. Cystostomy- Surgical opening made into the bladder

    *58. Cystotomy- Incision into the urinary bladder

    *59. Hypertrophy- Increase in the size of tissues

    *60. Haematuria- Blood in the urine

    *61. Glycosuria- Presence of sugar in the urine

    *62. Albuminuria- Presence of albumin in the urine

    P.S = Finally I found the lost note of 1st year ward rotations!

    Thank you!

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