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    Perfusion refers to the supply of oxygenated blood to a tissue. A perfusion defect means that the supply of oxygenated blood is disrupted for any reason.

    Perfusion defects of the heart are a technical term referring to findings on a cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan (MRI). Essentially what it means is part of the heart are not receiving enough oxygenated blood. This can either be due to something permanent (death of heart cells due to a heart attack/Myocardial Infarction), or temporary (a “mini heart attack”, known as Myocardial Ischaemia).

    A cardiology consult would be required to deal with this and beyond the scope of a medical student like me of course. I would imagine this would involve medication to prevent worsening of (or if not permanent, reverse) the defect, such as aspirin, clopidogrel, ACE Inhibitors, Beta blockers etc.

    Once the heart muscle is dead though, it’s dead. Heart muscle does not regenerate. Dead heart tissue does little harm itself fortunately, but it’s more of the lost functionality of the heart that’s the problem.

    Hope that helps!

    If this is a real finding (not artifact) from a nuclear cardiac study, then that area of the heart is not taking up the injected radiotracer or presumably the blood that contains the tracer. It’s typically indicative of one of two things.

    1. There is poor blood flow to that area of the heart. This is typically seen as a “reversible” perfusion defect, in that blood flow is insufficient to meet exercise demand and the defect appears with exercise or some other stress. You can see a reversible defect as the absence of tracer in the images below

    2. The heart muscle in this area is dead. This type of defect is not reversible on imaging, and as a helpful mnemonic is usually not reversible by any method.

    This is an important difference – restoring blood flow to dead tissue isn’t going to help anything. The reversible defect however is something that could be fixed by opening up the involved artery through stenting or surgery, along with aggressive medical management. This finding therefore frequently (though certainly not invariably) is followed by a formal study of the coronary arteries, the so called heart cath, with the treatment plan usually formulated on the table at cath. I’m continually impressed by this time-sensitive decision making by my cardiology and cardiothoracic surgery colleagues, it’s not simple and the consequences are large.

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    There is no cure for CHD. Many people have surgeries to repair their heart, however, they are not cured. There may be long-term effects of heart surgery, such as abnormal heartbeats. Treatments. Although heart failure is a serious condition that progressively gets worse over time, certain cases can be reversed with treatment. Even when the heart muscle is impaired, there are a number of treatments that can relieve symptoms and stop or slow the gradual worsening of the condition.

    The human heart is a four chambered organ with two pumps working synchronously, placed side by side. The right atria and ventricle pumping impure blue venous blood to the lung while the left atria and ventricle handling the oxygen rich pure red blood to the rest of the body.

    The fetal heart in initial stages of development looks like this – just a tube.

    It folds on itself in a complex way and develops partitions to get into its final shape. That’s how the right and left systems separate.

    Now consider that the partition like a curtain. Normally, as the baby grow inside the mothers womb, the partition curtains slowly move closer to each other and finally fuse and leave no gap.

    But sometimes this happens –

    Similar to this gap (hole) in the pic below –

    (pics -…

    Something going wrong in the very, very intricate, complicated development of the heart in its embryonal development, usually during early on the first trimester of the pregnancy: firest from the cardiac crest two tubes are form, they fuse to form one tube, that tube loops, first the two ventricles form, from a common atrium two atriums are formed, at the end it’s partitioned into four chambers, very, very complicated:

    That’s why in this first trimester pregnant women should avoid using non essential meds.

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    He was young, in his 30s, thin and active. And he had just recovered from a massive heart attack.

    ‘Doctor, I don’t smoke, or drink, my cholesterol levels are normal. Why did I get it?’

    ‘And right from childhood, he is always thin and skinny’ added his mom.

    As my residents were sifting through his lab values, ECG and Echocardiogram, a 6 month old CT scan of abdomen caught my attention.

    ‘He had stomach pain and that’s why it was taken’ commented his father.

    The CT scan looked something like this

    MRI Abdomen / Pelvis (representative image from Google)

    Huge amount of visceral fat (In white), Straddling around the abdominal viscera; indicative of, among many things, Insulin resistance, Low HDL, high triglyceride and a high susceptibility to heart disease, despite being thin and skinny outside. Visceral Adiposity.

    We call it TOFI.

    Thin Outside Fat Inside.

    These are a subset of ‘metabolic syndrome’ who are non-obese with BMI less than 25 and a huge visceral adiposity.

    ‘Run, kid; run, for the sake of your life’ is all…

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a general term for conditions affecting the heart or blood vessels. It’s usually associated with a build-up of fatty deposits inside the arteries (atherosclerosis) and an increased risk of blood clots. Heart muscle damage (cardiomyopathy) can have many causes, including several diseases, infections, alcohol abuse and the toxic effect of drugs, such as cocaine or some drugs used for chemotherapy. Genetic factors also can play a role. Myocarditis.

    Okay so first I am going to tell my experience with heart palpitations. 2 months ago my father just accidentally put the pulse oximeter in my finger just to check if everything is fine, but as soon as he puts that sp02 level was fine but heart rate was 157–173 per minute. My father was very stressed after seeing this ,but I was Normal coz I couldn’t feel anything like I was as okay as on any other day , but my father decided to go to a doctor. Doctor again checked my heartbeat it was again 150+. Doctor said I have heart palpitations he prescribed a medicine called “indernal” which is a beta blocker and it can lower your heart rate. So I started having those and in the span of few days my heart rate comes to normal.

    Now it has come to normal so I stopped checking my heartbeat. 1 month has passed and it was June 10 , when I woke up I started feeling like chest heaviness , headache and I was not as energetic as on any other day. I can’t eat properly it was like I had loss of appetite and when I checked my heart rate it was again 148–150 and this time I was scared coz I can feel something is wrong inside my body. I was so scared coz the symptoms I was having was close to a heart attack. I was so afraid at that time many things were roaming in my head that I don’t wanna die at this age I am just 17. But then in evening I walked a little bit steps then situation comes to near to normal. Then I read a article about Ronaldo that he had tachycardia means his heartbeat was irregular even when he was resting and he had to go through the heart surgery to get rid off it. After this I was just so scared that if I had to go through heart surgery at this age. Next morning I told all this to my father he now decided to go to a heart doctor to know the cause. I had eco and ecg test, reports came out and it was normal my heart was functioning well but I had sinus tachycardia. Means heart always beat above 100. Doctor told you have nothing but stress , anxiety fear of something. And you have to change your lifestyle. And yeah he was right I was sleeping just for 3–4 hrs before and my routine, schedule all was messed up. I used to sleep late at night. So after this I started to sleep at 10 pm and took full sleep of 7: 30–8hrs and after waking up I do yoga. Yoga helps a lot to prevent cardiovascular disease. And now after 10 days my heart rate is fine and I can feel myself energetic back again. the cause can be anything as i mentioned above but you should get checked up if you are getting heart palpitations frequently. if there is an underlying cause, that can be tracked in eco or ecg tests. also i went for thyroid test as one of my relatives who is a doctor suggested me to go for it coz thyroid can also trigger to faster heartbeat. but my thyroid was normal. so if these things are normal then you should consider changing your lifestyle.

    So yeah guys pls take care of your health , routine, diet bcoz health is wealth!!.

    “I don’t mind (something)” means “(something) doesn’t bother/distress/annoy me”.

    “I wouldn’t mind” two distinct uses.

    1. It can be the conditional form of “I don’t mind,” as in “I wouldn’t mind if you used my pencil,” meaning “It wouldn’t bother me if you used my pencil.”
    2. It is used idiomatically as an oblique or mildly humorous way to say “I would like,” as in
      1. “Wow! What a gorgeous car! I wouldn’t mind having one of those.”
      2. “I’m parched (very thirsty). I wouldn’t mind a cup of tea if you have any.”

    I am going to assume you are referring to fixed splitting of the second heart sound (s2) in ASD (which doesn’t occur in VSD)

    The second heart sound contains an aortic component (A2) and a pulmonic component (P2). A2 comes before P2. The duration between the first heart sound (s1) and the P2 component of s2 is dependent on the right ventricular volume. During inspiration the volume is increased, the RV takes longer to empty, and the S1-P2 duration is longer and the A2/P2 split is wider. During expiration the filling duration is shorter, the S1-P2 duration is shorter, and the A2/P2 split is narrower.

    In an ASD, the decreased filling of the RV due to increased intrathoracic pressure during expiration is offset by the filling of the RV via the RA due to the atrial septal defect. With a fixed RV diastolic volume, the RV emptying time is fixed and the S2 split loses its variation – leading to the “fixed splitting of S2” in ASD.

    In a VSD, blood from the LV goes through the VSD directly into the RV outflow tract and into the pulmonary circulation. It doesn’t get a chance to “overfill” the RV. The RV volume varies as it normally would during respiration and S2 splitting remains variable (wider during inspiration, narrower during expiration).

    In some cases, it’s lifestyle choices. You can start out healthy in life, but if you smoke, drink too much, eat the wrong kinds of food, do drugs, or fail to get exercise, you’re at greater risk of developing a heart condition.

    In other cases, it’s genetics. You can lead a perfectly healthy lifestyle and do everything else perfectly right, but still have a genetic disposition to developing heart problems later in life no matter what else you do.

    Hole in the Heart (Septal Defect)

    This means you’re born with a hole in the wall, or septum, that separates the left and right sides of your heart. The hole lets blood from the two sides mix.

    Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)

    An ASD is a hole in the wall between the upper chambers, or the right and left atria, of your heart. A hole here lets blood from the left atrium mix with blood in the right atrium.

    Some ASDs close on their own. Your doctor may need to repair a medium or large ASD with open-heart surgery or another procedure.

    Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

    A VSD is a hole in the part of your septum that separates your heart’s lower chambers, or ventricles. If you have a VSD, blood gets pumped back to your lungs instead of to your body.

    A small VSD may also close on its own. But if yours is larger, you may need surgery to repair it.

    Complete Atrioventricular Canal Defect (CAVC)

    This is the most serious septal defect. It’s when you have a hole in your heart that affects all four chambers.

    A CAVC prevents oxygen-rich blood from going to the right places in your body. Your doctor can repair it with patches. But some people need more than one surgery to treat it.

    Valve Defects

    Valves control the flow of blood through your heart’s ventricles and arteries. And some minor heart defects can involve the valves, including:

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